Use this page to look up terms mentioned in Bicycle Quarterly, or to find out in which issue a subject was mentioned. Important: The glossary mentions issues of Bicycle Quarterly that include information on the topic. This includes in-depth information as well as minor references (for example, a single Rebour drawing). For detailed information on the topics covered in individual Bicycle Quarterly issues, check the table of contents of all Bicycle Quarterly magazines.

*Indicates that the person is known to be deceased.

4 Days of Paris (4 Jours de Paris): First post-war technical trials in France. See Vol. 4, #1.

24 Hours of Levallois (24 Heures de Levallois): Post-war randonneur event in Paris that started with 22 hours of Audax-style group riding followed by a 2-hour race in Levallois-Perret. See Vol. 9, #2; Vol. 9, #4.

650B: Wheel size for cyclotouring and camping bikes, as well as tandems. Bead seat diameter: 584mm (“golden mean” between 26″ and 700C). See Vol. 13, #1;Vol. 3, #2; Vol. 4, #1; Vol. 4, #3; Vol. 5, #1; Vol. 5, #2; Vol. 6, #4; Vol. 7, #4; Vol. 10, #1.

Aerodynamic Drag: The resistance encountered during forward movement due to friction with the surrounding air. Aerodynamic drag depends on the size of a body (frontal area) and its shape (drag coefficient). See Vol. 6, #1; Vol. 6, #3.

Aerts, Jean: Racer in the 1930s. See Vol. 4, #1.

Allure libre: Literally “Free pace.” In the context of randonneurs, events in which you choose your own speed within a prescribed minimum and maximum.

Antonin, Charles*: Post-war president of the French Federation of Cyclotourists (FFCT) and co-editor of Le Cycliste. See Vol. 9, #2; Vol. 11, #4.

Audax: Randonneurs who ride in groups, at a pre-determined speed. See Vol. 2, #2; Vol. 8, #3.

Audax-Club Parisien (ACP): Famous randonneur club in Paris. Continues to exist. Organizes Paris-Brest-Paris. See Vol. 6, #1; Vol. 8, #3; Vol. 9, #1; Vol. 9, #3; Vol. 10, #2.

A.V.A.: Manufacturer of high quality handlebars, stems and seatposts. Was owned by the same company as MAVIC. Introduced aluminum handlebars before 1934. Changed ownership later and produced lower-quality products. See Vol. 5, #1.

Baines: British framebuilder, known for their unorthodox “Flying Gate” model. See Vol. 5, #4.

Barra, Nicola*: Constructeur and innovator of aluminum bicycle frames in the 1930s in Paris. See Vol. 2, #4; Vol. 4, #1; Vol. 6, #4.

Barreau: Maker of handmade tires from the 1930s until ca. 1960. See Vol. 5, #1.

Baudain (or Baudin), Emile: Rider on the Alex Singer team, came first in Technical Trials 1946. See Vol. 2, #1 and Vol. 4, #1. (Marie-Rose Baudain, his wife, also rode for Singer.)

Baumann, Roger*: Winner of Paris-Brest-Paris in 1956. See Vol. 1, #2 and Vol. 4, #2.

Baylis, Brian*: Framebuilder in California. See Vol. 4, #2.

Bell: Brand of wingnuts, considered the best wingnuts ever made. No. 53.

Bernadet, Etienne*: Rider and designer of bicycles. Worked with André Reiss on the design of Reyhand bicycles. Rode Reyhands to victory in three 1930s technical trials. See Vol. 9, #2.

Berthoud, Gilles: Maker of bikes and parts. Still manufactures the famous Sologne leather and canvas bags, now marketed under his name. See Vol. 4, #1; Vol. 6, #4; Vol. 7, #3.

Bianchi: Large Italian maker of bicycles. Fausto Coppi famously rode for Bianchi. See Vol. 4, #3.

Bi-Chain, Bi-Chaine: System to obtain multiple gears using two drivetrains, with either one driving the bike. See Vol. 4, #2.

Boneshaker: First bicycles with pedal-drive to the front wheels in the 1860s. Were developed from hobby horses. See Vol. 6, #1.

Bottom bracket drop: How far the center of the bottom bracket lies below the line connecting the two axle centers. See also bottom bracket height. See Vol. 3, #3; Vol. 9, #4; Vol. 10, #2.

Bottom bracket height: How far the center of the bottom bracket is located above the ground. BB height = Radius of wheels – BB drop. See Vol. 3, #3; Vol. 9, #4, Vol. 10, #2.

Bourotte ?–1935: Constructeur of cyclotouring bicycles. Introduced wide, supple tires in the 1920s. Vol. 9, #1.

Brandt, Jobst 1935-2015: Pioneer of the science of bicycle wheels. Also famous for riding off the beaten path in Europe and California. No. 53.

Brans, Lionel*: Constructeur and randonneur from Paris. Famous for riding from Paris to Saigon in 1949/1950. See Vol. 11, #1.

Braxton, Sam*: Custom builder of touring bikes from Missoula, MT, USA. See also Vol. 3, #3.

Brevet: A randonneur ride, usually over a distance of 100, 200, 300, 400, 600, 1000 or 1200km. A minimum speed is required to finish the ride and obtain a medal. See Vol. 4, #3; Vol. 8, #3; Vol. 11, #1. For information on brevets in the U.S., see

Brooks: British manufacturer of traditional leather saddles. Still in business. See Vol. 5, #2; Vol. 6, #1; Vol. 7, #3.

Bulté, Gilbert, 1921–2014: Winner on tandem in Paris-Brest-Paris 1956. See Vol. 1, #2; Vol. 9, #2; Vol. 9, #4; No. 50.

Burton, Beryl*: Famous British female bicycle racer, won five World Championships. See Vol. 3, #1.

Butcher Bike: British term for a delivey bike with a large frame-mounted front rack. See Vol. 5, #3.

Butler, Claud*: British framebuilder. Claud Butler’s company went bankrupt in 1957 and was taken over by Holdsworth. See Vol. 5, #4.

C.A.R.: Bottom brackets and hubs with adjustable annular bearings developed by Charles-Albert Ripet in the early 1930s. First used by Reyhand. Hubs later made by Maxi-Car. See Vol. 5, #1.

Callet, Paulette*: See Porthault, Paulette. See Vol. 3, #1.

Cambio Corsa: First Campagnolo derailleur, introduced in 1943. Required backpedaling and opening the rear quick release to shift. See Vol. 4, #4 for ride report, and Vol. 6, #1 for a detailed description of the more sohisticated Paris-Roubaix.

Caminade/Caminargent: Builder/manufacturer of aluminum frames, starting in the 1930s.

Campagnolo, Tullio (–1983): Innovative maker of bicycle components. Said to have invented the modern wheel quick release. See Vol. 2, #2; Vol. 3, #2; Vol. 4, #2; Vol. 4, #4; Vol. 6, #1; Vol. 12, #4.

Ceramic ball bearings: Recent, very expensive bearings said to improve performance. See Vol. 5, #3.

Chain Rest: A device on the dropout onto which the chain can be shifted before removing the rear wheel. The chain remains on the chainrest as the wheel is removed and replaced, and then the chain can be shifted back onto the freewheel/cassette. This allows removing the wheel without touching the chain. See Vol. 1, #1; Vol. 8, #2; Vol. 10, #1.

Chainless Hillclimber: 1903 shaft-drive bicycle with 2- or 3-speed transmission. See Vol. 6, #3.

Chapelet: Constructeur from Paris with the brand “Chaplait.” Famous for tandems, won the Poly de Chanteloup several times in the 1940s. See Vol. 3, #1.

Charrel, Paul (1907–1994): Constructeur and cyclotourist from Lyon. Developed cantilever brakes that pushed the pad straight to the rim in the 1940s. See Vol. 8, #2.

C.I.M.: Cycles Imbert-Marcadier. Constructeur of steel and aluminum bikes with innovative components. See also Marcadier, André. See Vol. 2, #3; Vol. 11, #4.

Cinelli, Cino: Italian framebuilder. See also Vol. 4, #4; Vol. 5, #4; Vol. 8, #1.

Colnago, Ernesto: Mechanic and framebuilder. Made many bikes for Eddy Merckx, including his hour record bike. Now markets bikes under his own name. See Vol. 3, #2; Vol. 4, #4; Vol. 8, #4.

Combe, Edith ( -2010): French randonneuse. See Vol. 12, #3.

Confrérie des 650 (Brotherhood of 650 B riders ): Organization dedicated to the preservation of the 650B wheel size. Most early randonneur and camping bikes and most French tandems used this wheel size. See their website at

Constructeur: Different from a framebuilder, a constructeur actually builds the entire bike, including proprietary components and others that are modified for the purpose. Randonneur and camping bikes are the specialty of constructeurs.

Contact Patch: The area of a tire that touches the ground. See Vol. 5, #1.

Control: During randonneur brevets , riders check in at controls to show that they have completed the entire course. Here, their cards are stamped and signed, and the time is noted. See Vol. 9, #4.

Cooper, Ron (1932-2012): British framebuilder. See Vol. 11, #4.

Coppi, Fausto*: Famous Italian racer.

Criterium de la Vitesse (Speed Trials): 3.6km (2.3 mile) time trial for tandems in Paris during World War II. See Vol. 3, #1; Vol. 9, #1.

Cross-over gearing: On most modern derailleur bikes, the general speed range is selected with the front chainring, and smaller adjustments are made on the rear. See Vol. 3, #2.

Csuka, Ernest, 1928–2009: Successor of Alex Singer. Ernest Csuka ran Cycles Alex Singer from 1964 until 2007. See Vol. 1, #1; Vol. 3, #4; Vol. 4, #1; Vol. 5, #1; Vol. 8, #3; Vol. 9, #3.

Csuka, Olivier: Son of Ernest Csuka, took over Cycles Alex Singer in 2007.

Csuka, Roland, 1927–1993: Brother of Ernest Csuka, built Alex Singer frames.

Cuevas, Francisco, 1915–2005: Framebuilder who worked in Spain, Argentina and the USA. Famous for racing bikes and tandems. See Vol. 3, #3.

Cunningham, Charlie: Pioneer of aluminum mountain bikes. Developed innovative brakes, including Roller Cam brakes. See Vol. 8, #1.

Cyclo: One of the first derailleurs. Invented by Albert Raimond. Still state of the art in the 1950s, used on most cyclotouring bikes of the era. See Vol. 1, #3; Vol. 1, #4; Vol. 2, #1; Vol. 4, #2; Vol. 9, #4; etc.

Cyclo-Alpinisme: See Cyclo-Muletisme .

Cyclo-Muletisme: Long before mountain bikes, French riders rode in the roadless mountains. Liberally translated as “Cycling on Goat Paths.” See Vol. 3, #2.

Cyclo-Pedia: One of the first mail-order companies for quality lightweight bicycles and componentes in the United States, owned by Gene Portuesi. See Vol. 3, #4.

Cyclosportif: In France, cyclosportives are events similar to North American “century rides,” usually over challenging terrain. The distances vary, and riders are timed, adding some element of competition. The riders in these events used to be called almost interchangeably cyclosportifs or randonneurs, today, the term cyclosportif is more common. See Vol. 10, #2; Vol. 11, #4.

Cyclotouring, cyclotourist: Cyclotourists ride because they enjoy riding, rather than to seek money or glory. Different from the more narrowly defined English “bicycle tourist,” cyclotourists include century riders, mountain bikers, weekend riders, randonneurs and others. See Vol. 10, #2.

Darchieux, Germaine and Gustave*: Cyclotourists and randonneurs in the 1930s. See Vol. 5, #1.

Daudon, Camille*: Constructeur in Paris. See Vol. 12, #3.

Decaleur: Quick release for a handlebar bag. This keeps the bag off the handlebars to allow easy access to all hand positions. Furthermore, it allows quick removal of the bag. See Vol. 4, #2; Vol. 5, #1; Vol. 10, #2.

Dejeans, Jean*: Well-known randonneur in the 1940s&8211;1950s. President of the Audax-Club Parisien. See Vol. 1, #3; Vol. 3, #1; Vol. 9, #3.

Demi-Ballon: 650B “half-balloon” tires, about 38s&8211;42mm wide. Used on most cyclotouring bikes until the 1950s. See Vol. 5, #1; Vol. 6, #4.

Demilly, Robert: Randonneur and fastest rider in Paris-Brest-Paris 1966 with Maurice Macaudière.

Denny, Jack: Framebuilder, designed and built frames for Hetchins. See Vol. 5, #4.

Derche: Constructeur in Paris.

Desbois, Jean, 1924–2010: Framebuilder at René Herse’s shop from 1941 until the early 1950s. Husband of Lyli Herse. Built René Herse bikes from the death of René Herse in 1976 until the shop closed in 1984. See Vol. 5, #1; Vol. 9, #2.

Desgrange, Henri*: Founder of the Tour de France, editor of the newspaper L’Auto. See Vol. 5, #2; Vol. 8, #3; Vol. 8, #4.

Desvages, Pierre*: Constructeur in Paris who specialized in tandems in the 1920s. See Vol. 12, #3.

Déchanet, René: Together with Georges Trottier and Pierre Gardini, inventor of the Nivex derailleur.

Détée, Lucien: Winner on tandem in Paris-Brest-Paris 1956. See Vol. 1, #2; Vol. 9, #4.

Diagonale: France roughly is shaped like a hexagon. Since 1930, randonneurs ride the 9 diagonals connecting the corners of the hexagon. The riders chose route and date of their attempt. Postcards are mailed along the way to prove that the course has been completed. See Vol. 7, #3; also

Drag coefficient: Dimensionless variable that describes the streamlining of a body. Together with the frontal area, it determines the aerodynamic drag of a body. See Vol. 6, #1.

Ducheron, Robert: Constructeur in Paris. See Vol. 4, #1 and Vol. 4, #3.

Dujardin, G.: Constructeur of cyclotouring bikes in Paris from the 1930s through 1960s. Took over manufacture of Nivex derailleurs in the 1960s. See Vol. 3, #2.

Duprat: Maker of famous hollow steel cranks. See Vol. 2, #3; Vol. 5, #1.

Dursley Pedersen: Innovative bicycle designed by Mikael Pedersen, manufactured from ca. 1900-1915 in Dursley, Great Britain. Vol. 9, #1.

Dusausoit, Jacques: Nephew of Albert Lenoir (Cycles Mignon) in Belgium. See Vol. 4, #1.

Egg, Oscar: Racer in the 1910s and 1920s. Set a number of hour records. Later sold bicycles under his name in Paris and invented the Super Champion derailleur. See Vol. 4, #3 and Vol. 4, #4.

Exubis, Josette*: French randonneuse, completed the Raid Pyrénéen. See Vol. 12, #3.

“f” Factor: Wheel flop factor: f = b sin ∂ cos ∂ (b = geometric trail, ∂ = head angle). The amount of wheel flop (how much the front of the bike lowers when the handlebars are turned) is directly proportional to f. See Vol. 3, #3; Vol. 5, #3; Vol. 8, #2.

Faure, Benoît: Racer in the 1930s, participated several times in the Tour de France as touriste-router. Nicknamed “The Mouse.” See Vol. 4, #3.

Fédéral: In France, activities and items associated with the French Cyclotouring Federation (FFCT). See Vélo Fédéral.

Fender (also called mudguard): Protects bike and rider from spray when riding on wet roads. See Vol. 1, #2; Vol. 2, #1; Vol. 3, #1; Vol. 5, #1; Vol. 5, #2.

FFC: Abbreviation for the French Federation of Cyclists, the organization that regulates bicycle racing in France. See Vol. 9, #3.

FFCT: Abbreviation for the French Federation of Cyclotourists . Vol. 9, #1; Vol. 9, #3.

Fixed gear: A bicycle without a freewheel – the rider has to pedal at all times when the bike is moving. See Vol. 5, #2; Vol. 5, #4; Vol. 8, #4.

Fixed wheel: Fixed gear.

Flèche Vélocio: Spring team ride, originally to the Easter meeting of cyclotourists in Provence. Up to five bikes (or tandems) ride together over a course of their design. The goal is to complete the entire course within 24 hours, no more and no less. Minimum distance is 360km (224 miles). Today, Flèche events are organised all over the world. See Vol. 3, #1; Vol. 9, #3; Vol. 10, #2.

Fletcher, Raymond: Maker of bicycles in Paris under the CNC brand. Supplied Jack Taylor Cycles with French components. See Vol. 7, #4.

Floating chain: A system to obtain multiple gears without a chain tensioner. The excess chain hangs down loosely. See Vol. 1, #3; Vol. 5, #2.; Vol. 10, #4.

Flying Scot: Brand of David Rattray, framebuilder in Glasgow between 1928 and 1982. See Vol. 10, #4. 5, #4.

Follis: Mid-sized manufacturer of production bicycles. Switched to custom bikes and especially tandems in the 1970s.

Fork offset: Measures how far ahead of the steerer axis the front wheel center lies. Also called fork rake. Together with head angle, fork offset determines geometric trail. See Vol. 3, #3; Vol. 4, #3; Vol. 5, #3; Vol. 9, #4; Vol. 10, #2.

Fork rake: See fork offset.

Fox: Maker of innovative clincher rims in the late 1940s. Now defunct. See Vol. 11, #4.

Frame flex: Deflection of a bicycle frame due to pedaling forces. Variously believed to be detrimental, unimportant or beneficial (see also planing). See Vol. 4, #4; Vol. 5, #4; Vol. 6, #4; Vol. 7, #4; Vol. 9, #3; No. 51.

Frame geometry: The measurements and angles fo the bicycle’s tubes, which affect fit and handling of the bike. See Vol. 10, #2.

French Cyclotouring Federation (FFCT): National French association of cyclotouring organizations.

Frexel: Maker of parallel-action cantilever brakes in the 1940s. Now defunct. See Vol. 3, #2.

Frontal area: The cross-sectional area of a shape, when seen straight-on. Together with the drag coefficient, the frontal area determines the aerodynamic drag of a shape. See Vol. 6, #1.

Funiculo: Brand of derailleurs and other accessories developed by Jacques Schulz. See Vol. 4, #2.

Gambier, Regina*: French randonneuse, the first to complete the Diagonale from Dunkerque to Hendaye in 1931. See Vol. 12, #3.

Gammon, Reg: British illustrator. See Vol. 5, #2; Vol. 5, #3.

Ganier, Juliette (1893-1979): French randonneuse, the first to ride Paris-Brest-Paris in 1921 with Pierre Desvages on a tandem. Later married Louis Pitard. See Vol. 2, #3; Vol. 12, #3.

Gardini, Pierre: Together with Georges Trottier and René Déchanet, inventor of the Nivex derailleur.

Gaul, Charly (1933–2005): Professional racer of the 1950s. Won 1958 Tour de France. Nicknamed “Angel of the Mountains.” See Vol. 4, #3.

Generator: powered by wheel rotation, produces electricity to power lights.

Generator hub: Hub with built-in generator that can power lights, as well as charge electronic devices. See Vol. 3, #4; Vol. 5, #2; Vol. 6, #1; Vol. 11, #1.

Gentleman race: A time trial that pairs a professional racer with an amateur older than 40 years old. A handicap systems deducts one second off the team’s time for each year of age above 40. See Vol. 9, #2.

Geometry: See frame geometry.

Geometric Trail: Measures how far behind the steerer axis the front wheel touches the ground. Geometric trail is determined by fork offset and head angle. Often simply called trail. See Vol. 3, #3; Vol. 4, #3; Vol. 5, #3; Vol. 9, #4; Vol. 10, #2.

Gibbs, George (1933–2013): Owner of Il Vecchio Bicycles in Seattle. See Vol. 12, #3.

Giro d’Italia Cicloturistica: Regularity event in Italy for amateurs in the 1950s. See Vol. 4, #1; Vol. 9, #2.

Goëland: Brand of Louis Moire, constructeur in Paris offering a wide range of bicycles at different prices. (The French word “Goëland” means “Seagull.”) See Vol. 4, #2, Vol. 7, #1.

Goéland: See Goëland.

Goyon, Maurice, 1920–2004: Maker of cyclotouring bikes under the name “Remy” in Paris in the 1940s and 1950s. See Vol. 3, #3.

Gordon, Bruce*: Current-day Californian maker of touring bicycles and accessories. See Vol. 4, #1; Vol. 9, #1.

Grand Prix de la Vitesse (Grand Prix of Speed): 1km elimination race for tandems in Paris during World War II. See Vol. 3, #1.

Grand Prix de Neuilly: Tandem race in Paris during the 1950s. See Vol. 9, #2.

Graves, Clifford (Dr.)*: Famous American bicycle tourist, founded International Bicycle Touring Society. See Vol. 3, #2 ; Vol. 3, #3; Vol. 6, #2; Vol. 7, #3.

Grillot, Georges*: Founder of the Groupe Montagnard Parisien and long-distance rider in the 1930s. See Vol. 7, #3; Vol. 12, #3.

Groupe Montagnard Parisien: Small, but very influential cycling club in Paris. Took over the magazine Le Cycliste after Vélocio’s death. Organized the diagonals and the technical trials. See Vol. 7, #3; Vol. 9, #1.

Grubb, Fred H.*: British framebuilder, made bikes from 1914 until 1949. The company then was taken over by Holdsworth. See Vol. 5, #4.

Guerra, Learco*: Famous racer in the 1930s. 1931 World Champion and 1932 Giro d’Italia winner. Nicknamed “Human Locomotive.” See Vol. 4, #3.

Half-step gearing: Half-step gearing provides large, evenly spaced steps in the rear (e.g., 20%). If a smaller step is required, the front chainrings are spaced only 10% apart (or a “half-step”), allowing to fine-tune the gear. See Vol. 3, #2; Vol. 4, #3.

Gyroscopic Forces: The gyroscopic forces of the wheels affect the bike’s handling. See Vol. 8, #3.

Hamburger, Charlie*: Importeur of French cyclotouring bikes in Boston, starting in the 1950s. Also sold bikes under the brand “OTB” (Only the Best).

Hara: Japanese bicycle brand. See Vol. 4, #4. Some Hara frames appear to be made by Toei.

Hathaway, John*: Famous bicycle tourist from Vancouver, Canada. See Vol. 3, #3.

Head angle: Measures the inclination of the steerer axis. See Vol. 3, #3; Vol. 5, #3; Vol. 9, #4; Vol. 10, #2.

Herse, Lyli (1928-2018): Daughter of René Herse, 8x French national champion and several times winner of Poly de Chanteloup (on mixed tandem). See Vol. 12, #1.

Herse, René (1908–1976): Famous constructeur in Paris. See Vol. 2, #2; Vol. 2, #3; Vol. 3, #1; Vol. 3, #2; Vol. 4, #1; Vol. 5, #1; Vol. 5, #2; Vol. 6, #4; Vol. 7, #3; Vol. 9, #4.

Hetchin, Hyman*: British bicycle manufacturer, famous for “curly” stays and ornate lugs. See Vol. 5, #4.

Hetchin, Alf: Son of Hyman Hetchin, took over the shop after Hyman died in 1961. See Vol. 5, #4.

High Wheeler: Front-wheel drive bicycles with large front wheels to increase gearing. See Vol. 10, #1.

Hirondelle: Brand of Manufrance in Saint-Etienne. Famous for “Retro-Directe” drivetrains.

Hirose, Hidetaka*: Constructeur in Tokyo, Japan. No. 53.

Hobby Horse: Earliest bicycles, which were propelled by pushing the feet off the ground, starting in the 1810s. Were replaced by boneshakers in the 1860s. Vol. 6, #1.

Hub Gear: Gearbox built into the rear hub to provide multiple gears. See Vol. 11, #4.

Hugonnier-Routens: Hugonnier-Routens: Brand of Jo Routens and Monsieur Hugonnier of Grenoble, 1947-1952. Became Jo Routens in 1952. See Vol. 2, #3; Vol. 6, #4.

Huret, André: Maker of derailleurs. See Vol. 4, #2; Vol. 4, #4; Vol. 5, #1.

Hurlow, W. B. (1921–2010): Framebuilder, considered by many as one of the best of British framebuilders. Vol. 8, #4.

Hurtu: Company who made quality production bicycles in the 1930s and 1940s. Famous for quality tandems. See Vol. 2, #3.

Ideale: French manufacturer of traditional leather saddles. Famous for alloy-railed superlight saddles. Now reborn in Toulouse, France.

International Bicycle Touring Society (IBTS): Organization founded by Dr. Clifford Graves, promoted bicycle touring in the United States. Organized bicycle tours in Europe. Many members rode René Herse and Alex Singer bicycles. See Vol. 3, #3; Vol. 6, #2; Vol. 7, #3; Vol. 10, #2.

Intégral: Innovative bike in the 1920s with triangulated frame, floating chain and outboard bearings. See Vol. 1, #3; Vol. 5, #2.

Inverted parallelogram derailleur: Tullio Campagnolo introduced the first popular parallelogram racing derailleur in 1949, which was copied by many manufacturers. Compared to earlier parallelogram derailleurs, such as the Nivex, the Campagnolo’s parallelogram is inverted, so it does not folllow the contour of the freewheel. See also Vol. 2, #2; Vol. 4, #4.

Iribe*: Framebuilder in Nara, Japan, specializing in Keirin frames and bottle cages. See also Vol. 12, #4.

Jack Taylor Cycles: British maker of racing and touring bikes, famous for high-end tandems inspired by French machines. The company was run by the three brothers Jack, Ken and Norman Taylor. See Vol. 7, #4; No. 51.

Jansen, Roger T.: Constructeur of cyclotouring bikes in Vermont in the 1970s. See BQ 72.

Jacquelin, Marius: One of the fastest cyclosportifs of the 1950s. Rode for Alex Singer, Marcadierand others. See Vol. 11, #4.

Jenatzy: Brand of high-quality production tires in the late 1930s. Made in Belgium. See Vol. 5, #1.

JOS: Maker of bicycle lights. See Vol. 5, #2.

Kawai, Junzo, 1922–2014 Long-term chairman of the board at SunTour. See Vol. 13, #1.

Keyhole spoke holes: Spoke holes that are elongated and widened, so a spoke head can be passed through and then hooked into position. This allows changing right rear spokes without removing the freewheel. Feature of Maxi-Car hubs. See Vol. 1, #3.

Kleitz, Val, 1960–2011: Owner of Bikesmith, a well-known Seattle bicycle shop (now defunct). See Vol. 10, #1.

La Pedale Touristique: French cyclotouring weekly, founded by Claude Tillet. Published during the 1930s.

Lapize, Octave*: Winner of the first mountain stage of the Tour de France. Won the Tour de France 1910. See Vol. 5, #2; Vol 8, #4.

Le Chat: Popular front derailleur in the 1930s. See Vol. 4, #4.

Le Cycle: French cycling magazine. Edited by Daniel Rebour. (Published ca. 1945–1975. A completely different magazine uses the same name today.)

Le Cycliste: French magazine devoted to cyclotouring. Founded by Vélocio in 1887. Ceased publication in 1973. See Vol. 3, #2; Vol. 5, #2.

Leducq, André: Racer in the 1930s. See Vol. 4, #1; Vol. 4, #3.

Lenoir, Albert: Owner of Cycles Mignon. See Vol. 4, #1.

Lepertel, Robert (1924-2013): Long-time president of the Audax-Club Parisien. Organizer of many randonneur events, including Paris-Brest-Paris. See Vol. 11, #4.

L’Eroica: Ride for classic bicycles in Italy. See Vol. 5, #2.

Level Cycles: Framebuilder in Tokyo, Japan, specializes in Keirin frames. See Vol. 12, #4.

Lu-Mi-Num: Brand of aluminum bicycles during the 1890s. See Vol. 8, #1; Vol. 8, #2.

Macaudière, Maurice: Randonneur and fastest rider in Paris-Brest-Paris 1966 with Robert Demilly. See Vol. 6, #1.

Maclean, Don: British framebuilder. Maclean built bikes from the early 1920s until 1962. Then the company was taken over by Holdsworth. See Vol. 5, #4.

MAFAC: Company who produced many quality brakes (“Manufacture Arvernoise de Freins et Accessoires pour Cycles”). Started out under the name Sécurite. Famous for cantilever and center-pull brakes. No longer made. See Vol. 6, #2; Vol. 7, #3.

Marcadier, André (1925-2013): Constructeur of innovative, superlight aluminum and steel bikes, 1947–1950s. Later moved on to motorbikes and racing cars. See Vol. 2, #3; Vol. 11, #4.

Marre, Philippe (Dr.)*: Founding member of the Groupe Montagnard Parisien and editor of Le Cycliste. Vol. 7, #3.

Maury, A.: Constructeur of cyclotouring bikes, tandems and triplets in Paris, 1930s-1950s.

Masi, Faliero: Builder of racing bikes in Milan (Italy) and California. See Vol. 4, #4.

Mavic: Maker of the first popular aluminum rims in 1932, as well as fenders, stems, handlebars and seatposts, also under the AVA brand. Later made components and currently sells wheels. See Vol. 5, #1.

Maxi: Quality hubs during the 1930s/40s. Replaced by Maxi-Car. See Vol. 2, #4.

Maxi-Car: Famous hubs with annular bearings, oversize axles, labyrinth seals and many other features. No longer made. See also C.A.R. See Vol. 2, #4.

Meiffret, Jose*: Set numerous motorpaced records. Was the first cyclist to surpass 200km/h (124 mph) in 1962. See Vol. 3, #2.

Merckx, Eddy: One of the most prolific racers of all time. Won numerous races and set hour record. See Vol. 3, #2.

Mignon (Cycles Mignon): Constructeur and importer of Alex Singer bicycles in Brussels, Belgium. See Vol. 4, #1.

Moire, Louis: Constructeur in Paris, sold bikes under the Goëland (later Goéland) brand. See Vol. 4, #2.

Moorson: British framebuilder, known for their “Super Twin Tube” model with two down and top tubes. See Vol. 5, #4.

Morroni, Pino: Inventor and maker of bicycle parts from Detroit, MI. Known for early fabrication of titanium parts. See Vol. 3, #2.

Moulton, Alex (1920-2013): British designer of car suspensions, also designed the Moulton bicycle. Vol. 9, #1; Vol. 11, #4.

Mudflap: Lower extension of fender to add additional protection. Usually made from rubber, but plastic and leather also used. See Vol. 5, #2.

Narcisse: Brand of Narcisse Manevitch. Constructeur in Paris. See Vol. 2, #3; Vol. 3, #1; Vol. 4, #1.

Navet, Georges (1913-1978): Founder of the component maker TA. Also worked at René Herse. See Vol. 6, #1.

Nivex: Maker of front and rear derailleurs. Introduced one of the first parallelogram derailleurs in 1938. Often found on Alex Singer bikes. Very innovative design. See Vol. 1, #1; Vol. 2, #2; Vol. 2, #3; Vol. 3, #2; Vol. 4, #2; Vol. 10, #3.

Ocaña, Luis (1945-1994): Spanish racer and winner of the 1973 Tour de France. See Vol. 11, #2.

Olbrechts, Jean: Rider for Cycles Mignon and Alex Singer in the 1940s and 1950s. See Vol. 4, #1.

Ordinary: See high wheeler .

Paceline: A group of riders working together by drafting. Further refinements are a rotating paceline or a rotating echelon. See Vol. 5, #4.

Paret, Henri: Cyclotourist who, at age 50, probably the oldest particiant ever in the Tour de France. Finished 11th in the 1904 Tour de France. See Vol. 5, #2.

Paris-Brest-Paris: One of the oldest long-distance bicycle races in the world. Now held for randonneurs. 1200km, to be ridden in less than 90 hours. Every 4 years. See along with Vol. 1, #2; Vol. 2, #1; Vol. 2, #3; Vol. 2, #4; Vol. 6, #1; Vol. 6, #2; Vol. 8, #3; Vol. 9, #4.

Parallelogram derailleur: All modern derailleurs use a deformable parallelogram to move the chain. This system was pioneered by Nivex and Campagnolo (who invented the modern inverted parallelogram derailleur). See Vol. 2, #2; Vol. 4, #4.

Paris Lightweight Cycles: British bicycle manufacturer, famous for their “Galibier” model with oversize central tube, based on the design of the Schulz. See Vol. 5, #4.

Paris-Roubaix: Classic race, today famous for its cobblestone sections. See Vol. 4, #1; Vol. 8, #1.

Patterson, Frank*: Famous British illustrator of cycling scenes. See Vol. 5, #4.

Pedersen, Mikael*: Danish inventor who worked in Great Britain. Famous for the Dursley Pedersen bicycle. See Vol. 9, #1.

Pelissier brothers: Famous family of professional racers during the 1910s – 1930s. See Vol. 4, #3.

Penny Farthing: Latter-day name given to high wheelers, because their wheels looked like a large Penny coin followed by a smaller Farthing coin.

Pereira, Tony: Modern-day constructeur from Portland, Oregon. See Vol. 6, #2; Vol. 8, #2; Vol. 9, #3.

Phelan, Jacquie: Mountain bike pioneer and 3-times national champion. See Vol. 8, #1.

Pinto, Mel: Importer of Gitane bicycles, TA, Campagnolo, Mafac, etc. from the 1950s until 2000s. See Vol. 9, #3.

Pitard, Juliette*: See Juliette Ganier.

Pitard, Louis (1895-1987): Constructeur in Paris, built some of the first modern performance tandems in the 1930s. Rode Paris-Brest-Paris 1931, 1948, 1951 with his wife Juliette. See Vol. 2, #3; Vol. 6, #2.

Planing: The ability of a rider to get in sync with a bicycle, as the bike flexes in response to the rider’s pedal strokes. When the bicycle planes, riding with high power output becomes easier, probably because less lactic acid is produced in the rider’s leg muscles. Planing is associated with frame flex. A bike that is too stiff for the rider feels unyielding (“dead”) and is harder to pedal. The term is borrowed from boats, which use less energy at higher speeds as they plane and rise out of the water. See Vol. 4, #4; Vol. 5, #4; Vol. 6, #4; Vol. 7, #4; No. 51.

Pneumatic trail: Self-centering force on a two-wheeler’s front wheel caused by lateral tire deformation. Acts in conjunction with geometric trail to stabilize the bike. See also Vol. 3, #3; Vol. 4, #3; Vol. 5, #3.

Poly de Chanteloup: Hillclimb race near Paris to showcase the superiority of geared bikes vs. fixed gears. Categories for professionals (on racing bikes), randonneurs and mixed tandems (both on fully equipped randonneur bikes). No longer exists. See Vol. 3, #1; Vol. 9, #4; Vol. 12, #1.

Poly de Huitzingen (Poly Belge): Similar to Poly de Chanteloup, but in Brussels/Belgium. See Vol. 4, #1.

Poly Lyonnaise: Similar to Poly de Chanteloup, but in Lyon. See Vol. 9, #2; Vol. 9, #4; Vol. 11, #4.

Porteur: Newspaper courier in Paris. Also used for the bikes of Paris newspaper couriers, with their distinctive front rack. See Vol. 5, #3.

Porthault, Charles*: Famous randonneur in the 1940s and 1950s. See Vol. 3, #1; Vol. 9, #3.

Porthault, Paulette: Born Paulette Callet. Famous cyclotourist and randonneur in the 1930s and 1940s. Traveled all over Europe by bike. Won the mixed tandem category of the Poly de Chanteloup hillclimb race with Jean Dejeans in 1941. See Vo. 3, #1; Vol. 9, #3.

Portuesi, Eugene (Gene)*: Importer of quality bicycle parts into the U.S. from the 1940s onward. Owner of the Cyclo-Pedia mailorder company. See Vol. 3, #4 ; Vol. 4, #2.

Q factor: See Tread .

Quinn, Harry (ca. 1917–2009): Framebuilder from Liverpool, England. See Vol. 8, #2.

Rabault, André: Cyclotourist and journalist. Editor of Le Cycliste. See Vol. 3, #2.

Radios: Maker of bicycle lights. See Vol. 5, #1.

Raimond, Albert*: Inventor and manufacturer of Cyclo derailleurs.

Raymond, Moniqe: French randonneuse, rode with the Vélo-Club Courbevoie-Asnières (V.C.C.A.) on René Herse’s team. See Vol. 12, #3.

Raid Pyrénéen: 720 km ride in France from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean, via the Pyrenees mountains. See Vol. 10, #2; Vol. 12, #2.

Randonneur: Unsupported long distance rider, who rides a course (200, 300, 400, 600, 1000 or 1200km) within a prescribed time limit. See Vol. 8, #3; Vol. 9, #1; Vol. 9, #3; Vol. 10, #2. For more information, see

Rebour, Daniel*: Famous illustrator of bicycles. Editor of Le Cycle. See Vol. 2, #4; Vol. 7, #4; Vol. 9, #2.

Rebry, Gaston: Racer in the 1930s. See Vol. 4, #1.

Reiss, André I.*: One of the first modern constructeurs. Made Reyhand bikes in Lyon from 1933 until 1940. Killed in World War II. See Vol. 5, #1; Vol. 9, #2.

Remy: One of the first bicycle shops in Paris. In the 1940s and early 1950s, the owner, Maurice Goyon, made fine cyclotouring bikes. Most Remys were mass-produced bikes bought from outside suppliers. See Vol. 5, #1; Vol. 3, #3.

Repose Chaine (chainrest): Built-in feature that allows removing the rear wheel without touching the chain. See Vol. 1, #1; Vol. 3, #2, Vol. 6, #2.

Retro-Direct, Retro-Directe: System to obtain multiple gears by backpedaling. Pedaling forward drove one freewheel, pedaling backward drove a second feewheel. Used by Hirondelle and other French manufacturers until the 1930s. See Vol. 4, #2.

Reyhand: Brand of André Reiss, of Lyon. This constructeur built some of the first fully integrated, superlight randonneur bikes. Reiss was killed in World War II. See Vol. 1, #4; Vol. 2, #3; Vol. 5, #1.

Reynolds: Manufacturer of tubing for bicycles. Reynolds 531 for decades was considered among the best tubing available. See Vol. 12, #2.

Rinko: Japanese system of packing bikes for train travel into small packages, without couplers in the frame. See Vol. 12, #4; No. 51.

Rochet: Large manufacturer of bicycles in France. See Vol. 4, #3.

Rohloff: German manufacturer of 14-speed hub gear. See Vol. 11, #4.

Rolling resistance: Resistance caused by tires. Usually includes suspension losses, as the two are impossible to separate in measurements. See Vol. 5, #1; Vol. 11, #3; Vol. 12, #3.

Roques, Micheline: French randonneuse. See Vol. 12, #3.

Roques, Pierre: French author of books about cyclotouring.

Routens, Jo*: Famous constructeur and bicycle dealer in Grenoble, France. See Vol. 2, #3; Vol. 6, #4; Vol. 9, #4; Vol. 11, #4.

Ruffier, James (Docteur), ca. 1875–1965: Famous cyclotourist, pioneer of sports medicine. See Vol. 3, #3.

Ruozzi, Gabriele: Touriste-Routier and racer in the 1930s. See Vol. 3, #3.

Salvaire, Rose*: French randonneuse. See Vol. 12, #3.

Saxon: British framebuilder, known for their “twin tube” model with two seat tubes. See Vol. 5, #4.

Schulz, Jacques: French constructeur in the 1930s. Developed bikes with a single diagonal tube (instead of top and down tubes), as well as the Funiculo derailleur. See Vol. 4, #1; Vol. 4, #2; Vol. 7, #2; Vol. 9, #1.

Seattle International Randonneurs: Randonneuring Club in Seattle. See

Sécurite: See Mafac.

Simplex: French makerof cycling components. Now defunct. See also Vol. 4, #2; Vol. 4, #4; Vol. 5, #1; Vol. 12, #1.

Singer, Alex*: Famous constructeur in Paris, started building in 1939. In 1962, Ernest Csuka took over Alex Singer bikes. Since 2007, Olivier Csuka has been making Alex Singer bikes. See Vol. 1, #1; Vol. 2, #3; Vol. 4, #1; Vol. 5, #3; Vol. 6, #2; Vol. 6, #4; Vol. 8, #3; Vol. 12, #3.

Shaft Drive: Instead of a chain, a shaft drive uses a shaft inside the chainstay to power the rear wheel. Popular around 1900, the shaft drive is expensive to manufacture and suffers from higher frictional losses than the chain drive.

Shimmy: Spontaneous oscillation of the front wheel, usually occurs at a predictable speed when riding no-hands. See Vol. 6, #3; Vol. 9, #2; Vol. 9, #4; Vol. 11, #3.

Souhart, Jacques: Inventor of “Passevitesses” bar-end shifters (1946) and the “Sansaxe” pedal with lowered platform. See Vol. 11, #4.

Sounalet, Gabriel: French cyclotourist who rode in 1930s Technical Trials. See Vol. 9, #1.

Spécialités TA: See TA.

Speedwell: Maker of the first commercially successful titanium bikes. See Vol. 11, #2.

Speedy: Brand of Dupuis, the French importer of Reynolds. Used for 1. Type of cantilever brake developed by René Herse in 1938 and marketed by Dupuis. See Vol. 4, #4. 2. Inexpensive tubing marketed by Reynolds in France from the 1940s through the 1960s. See Vol. 4, #2; Vol. 5, #2.

Spirax: Innovative derailleur invented by L. Bon in the 1940s. See Vol. 4, #2.

Standover clearance: Distance between top tube and cyclist’s crotch when straddling the bike with both feet on the ground. See Vol. 6, #1; Vol. 10, #2.

Standover height: Distance between the top tube and the ground. The standover height determines the standover clearance. See Vol. 10, #2.

Stronglight: French maker of headsets, cranks and bottom brackets. See Vol. 6, #2.

SunTour: Japanese brand of derailleurs and bike parts, owned by Maeda Industries. See Vol. 13, #1; Vol. 4, #2; Vol. 4, #4; Vol. 12, #1.

Super Champion: Introduced by Oscar Egg in 1934, the Super Champion was the first popular racing derailleur. See Vol. 4, #4 for a ride report.

Super Randonnée 600: 600 km permanents with at least 10,000 m of elevation gain, organized by the Audax Club Parisien. See Vol. 12, #1 for a ride report.

Suspension Losses: Energy absorbed due to vibration in the rider’s body (and bicycle). On rough roads, suspension losses can be the most important resistance the rider faces. See Vol. 8, #1; Vol. 11, # 3.

TA: French maker of cranks, chainrings and pedals, founded by Georges Navet. See Vol. 6, #1; Vol. 6, #2.

Taylor, Jack, 1919–2014: British maker of racing and touring bikes, famous for high-end tandems inspired by French machines under the name Jack Taylor Cycles. See Vol. 7, #4; No. 51.

Taylor, Kenneth: Brother of Jack Taylor, partner in Jack Taylor Cycles. See Vol. 7, #4.

Taylor, Norman, 1923–2008: Brother of Jack Taylor, partner in Jack Taylor Cycles. See Vol. 7, #1.

Taylor, Peggy: Wife of Jack Taylor. Worked at Jack Taylor Cycles. See Vol. 7, #4.

TCF: See Touring Club de France.

Technical Trials: Trials for randonneur bikes, where the best designs competed for points based on durability, light weight and innovative technical solutions. Organized at first by the Touring Club de France, later by the Groupe Montagnard Parisien. See Vol. 1, #4; Vol. 2, #1; Vol. 3, #1; Vol. 4, #1; Vol. 5, #1; Vol. 7, #3; Vol. 8, #2; Vol 9, #1.

Thanet: Bicycle brand of Les Cassell*. Famous for his unorthodox “Silverlight” model. See Vol. 5, #4.

Tillet, Claude: Cyclotourist and journalist. Editor of La Pedale Touristique , L’Auto .

Tire drop: The deflection of the tire under load. Tire pressure should be adjusted depending on tire size and rider weight to obtain constant tire drop. See Vol. 5, #4; Vol. 11, #3.

Toe overlap: If thefront wheel of a bicycle can hit the cyclist’s shoe/toeclip when turned, the bike has toe overlap. This can lead to accidents. See Vol. 10, #2.

Tour de France Cyclotouriste: Stage race for randonneurs and cyclotourists in the 1950s. Each stage was ridden Audax-style at a prescribed speed, until 50km from the finish, when the actual race started. See Vol. 8, #3.

Tour de Longchamps: Tandem race during World War II in Paris.

Touring Club de France: French cyclotouring organization that later turned toward car travel. Founded on an initiative of Vélocio. Organized Technical Trials between 1900 and the late 1930s. See Vol. 8, #3; Vol. 9, #1.

Touriste-Routier: Independent rider/racer in 1920s and 1930s Tour de France. Some of them were strong racers and finished well in the standings. See also Vol. 3, #3.

Toei: Japanese constructeur. See Vol. 7, #4.

Trail: See Geometric trail.

Trottier, Georges: Together with Pierre Gardini and René Déchanet, inventor of the Nivex derailleur.

Tread: The width of the crank assembly, which determines how far apart a rider’s feet are. Many riders prefer a narrow tread. Tread depends on crank and frame design. Sometimes also called Q factor. See Vol. 6, #2; Vol. 9, #4.

Uldry: Constructeur of cyclotouring bikes in Paris, late 1920s and 1930s.

Vélo Fédéral: A 1946 blueprint for a moderately priced cyclotouring bike developed by the French Cyclotouring Federation (FFCT). Straight-gauge tubing and steel components were specified to keep the bike affordable, while aluminum rims and braze-ons for all components would provide performance and reliability. Numerous builders introduced their interpretation of the “Vélo Fédéral” in the 1940s and 1950s. See Vol. 4, #3; Vol. 7, No., 3.

Vélocio* (real name: Paul de Vivie): Founder of the cyclotouring movement. Early proponent of multiple gears. Long-distance rider. Founder of the magazine Le Cycliste. See Vol. 5, #2; Vol. 7, #3; Vol. 8, #3; Vol. 9, #4.

Vélostable: 1930s French recumbent bicycle. See Vol. 6, #3.

Vélo-Vélocar: Pioneering 1930s French recumbent bicycle designed by Charles Mochet. See Vol. 9, #1.

Vetter, Bill*: Constructeur of cyclotouring bikes in Vermont in the 1970s. See Vol. 3, #4.

Vitupier, Pierre: Bike racer and winner of the 1953 Porteur Championships. See Vol. 5, #3.

Vivie, Paul de*: See Vélocio.

Weigle, Peter: Framebuilder and constructeur in Connectivut. Still active. See Vol. 4, #1; Vol. 4, #2; Vol. 5, #4; Vol 9, #2; Vol. 9, #4.

Wheel flop: The front of a bicycle is lowered as the handlebars are turned. This means that gravity reinforces handlebar deviations from center. The amount of wheel flop is determined by the factor “f”, the weight distribution of the bike, and an eventual front load attached to the bicycle’s forks. A bike with too little wheel flop will be sluggish in its reactions to handlebar inputs. A bike with too much wheel flop will tend to veer off its line at low and moderate speeds. See Vol. 3, #3; Vol. 4, #3; Vol. 5, #3; Vol. 8, #2; Vol. 10, #2.

Wheel size: Wheel sizes in Bicycle Quarterly are listed using the ERTRO designation: tire width (in mm) – bead seat diameter (in mm), followed by the traditional designation (700C, 650B, 26″, etc.). A 32 – 622mm (700C) tire is the same as a 700C x 32mm tire. The ERTRO designation avoids confusion that occurs with duplicate designations, such as 20″ (which can mean 451mm and 406mm).

White, Sumner: Cyclotourist and promoter of French bicycles in Boston, starting in the 1950s.

Wood, Phil* (1926–2010): American manufacturer of hubs and bottom brackets with cartridge bearings. The company still exists. Vol. 8, #4.

World War II: Cyclotouring competition in Paris continued during World War II: The Poly de Chanteloup continued to be held , and shorter competitions, like the Tour de Longchamps, Criterium de la Vitesse, and Grand Prix de la Vitesse replaced the long events that could not be organized under the German occupation. Bicycles were used to roam the countryside for food, and even to pull trailers as taxicabs. See Vol. 3, #1; Vol. 7, #3; Vol. 9, #1.